S obzirom da se u nekim medijima pojavljuju neistiniti navodi o problemu svjetlosnog onečišćenja, donosimo popis i poveznice na istraživanja koja se time bave.
Pod direktivom Hrvatskog društva za rasvjetu pojavljuju se članci o “strogom zakonu” (misleći na novi Zakon o zaštiti od svjetlosnog onečišćenja) koji pogoduje isključivo “šačici svjetlosnih aktivista s teleskopima” i “onima koji brinu o sudbini sova u gradskom području”, često navodeći da nisu dokazani negativni utjecaju svjetlosnog onečišćenja po ljude i okoliš, donosimo popis važnijih znanstvenih članaka i istraživanja o utjecaju svjetlosnog onečišćenja na ljude, ptice, kukce, vodozemce, pa i ribe. Gdje je bilo moguće, naveden je i datum objave članka – mnoga istraživanja su već odavno obavljena.
Novinare upućujemo i na ovaj članak gdje je objašnjeno kako je rasvjetna industrija intervenirala u donošenje zakona kako bi pogodovala vlastitim interesima i profitu. Što se tiče “strogog zakona”, upućujemo na slovensku Uredbu o graničnim vrijednostima svjetlosnog onečišćenja okoliša (donešenu 2007. godine!) gdje je vidljivo da postoje ograničenja koja su u Hrvatskoj potpuno ignorirana.
Artificial Light at Night (ALAN) Research Literature Database – ovdje je baza podataka s popisom i poveznicama na znanstvena istraživanja o utjecaju umjetne svjetlosti po noći na ljude i ekosustav, gdje se mogu naći brojna druga istraživanja.
U nastavku su navedeni naslovi i poveznice tekstova i istraživanja, s kopiranim najvažnijim zaključcima. Povremeno će se dodavati još istraživanja, pa provjerite s vremena na vrijeme. Osim toga, mnoga već navedena istraživanja imaju citirane druge radove.
U komentarima slobodno dodajte vlastite zanimljive poveznice.
Općenito o svjetlosnom onečišćenju
- On a clear night in 1994, an earthquake rumbled beneath Los Angeles and caused a city-wide power outage just before dawn. Startled awake, some residents who had stumbled outside called various emergency centers and a local observatory to report a mysterious cloud overhead. That weird object turned out to be the band of the Milky Way, our home galaxy, which had long been obscured from view by the city’s lights.
- The excess light we dump into our environments is endangering ecosystems by harming animals whose life cycles depend on dark. We’re endangering ourselves by altering the biochemical rhythms that normally ebb and flow with natural light levels. And in a primal sense, we’ve lost our connection to nighttime skies, the tapestries into which our ancestors wove their star-studded stories, timed the planting and harvesting of crops, and deduced the physical laws governing the cosmos.
- This atlas shows that more than 80% of the world and more than 99% of the U.S. and European populations live under light-polluted skies. The Milky Way is hidden from more than one-third of humanity, including 60% of Europeans and nearly 80% of North Americans.
- Assuming that the photopic flux and upward emission function remain equal, a 4000K white LED light is about 2.5 times more polluting for the scotopic band of the spectrum than is HPS lighting (high-pressure sodium, visokotlačni natrij, op. Ekorasvjeta). This implies that unless blue-light emission is restricted, a transition toward this technology can be expected to more than double the night sky brightness as perceived by our dark-adapted eyes.
- Under visual adaptation levels relevant to observing the night sky, namely with dark-adapted (scotopic) vision, blue-rich (“white”) sources produce a dramatically greater sky brightness than yellow-rich sources. High correlated color temperature LEDs and metal halide sources produce a visual brightness up to 8× brighter than low-pressure sodium and 3× brighter than high-pressure sodium when matched lumen-for-lumen and observed nearby.
- The scotopic increase compared to HPS is shown here to be significant for all LED sources, including low CCT.
- Given the dramatically greater scotopic visual sky luminance arising from blue-rich sources, the recent interest in installing white LED lighting to replace the currently predominant HPS presents the prospect of a dramatic increase in visual sky glow, in nearly all locations from naturally dark areas to areas within towns and cities. As these sources increase the scotopic brightness of sky glow by factors of 2–3 or more compared to HPS, the estimate that over 70% of Americans and over 50% of Europeans live under skies where they cannot see the Milky Way  will have to be revised significantly upward, unless total lighting amounts are reduced to one half or less of the current amounts. As many other biological systems (including the human circadian response ) have response functions more sensitive to blue light than the CIE V(λ) function , increased impacts on these systems may also be expected.
- One of the classic cases demonstrating the detrimental impacts of ALAN on animals was the observation that newly hatched sea turtles orient and move toward artificial lights rather than toward moonlight and starlight reflecting off the water’s surface (Butler 1998).
- Songbirds, for example, show enhanced gonadal development (Ouyang et al. 2018), sing earlier in the morning and receive higher extra-pair copulations when near street lamps (Kempenaers et al. 2010).
- Altered underwater light environments are known to contribute directly to the loss of biodiversity in aquatic systems, for example via disruption of visual signals used for mate choice during reproduction (van der Sluijs et al. 2011).
- Juvenile salmon were more heavily preyed upon by sculpin (Cottus spp.) during outward migration in areas of intense ALAN (Nightingale et al. 2006).
- Two peaks correspond to cloudy and clear nights respectively, the difference in brightness between them being about 3 magnitudes. A crude clear/cloudy criterion can be defined too: the minimum between two peaks is around 16.7 mag/arcsec2. The brightness values smaller than this are attributed to clear nights and vice-versa. Comparison with Vienna and Hong-Kong indicates that the light pollution of Zagreb is a few times larger.
Preporuke za ekološku javnu rasvjetu i smanjenje svjetlosnog onečišćenja
Green Public Procurement for Road Lighting and Traffic Signals – preporuke Europske komisije za javnu rasvjetu; Technical report and criteria proposal, str. 60
- Specific energy consumption of 15 kWh/pe/yr for all outdoor public lighting.
- CCT <2200K with less than 6% of total emissions in the <500nm range (except when average illumination is <5 lx, where CCT can rise to 2700K and <500nm emission can rise to 10%).
- ULOR of 0.0% both when new and when dirty.
- Ban on lighting on any roads, exits and junctions outside of settlements.
- Pole distance must be at least 3.7× the pole height.
- Maximum luminance allowed is 0.5 cd/m2 (i.e. no brighter than an EN 13201 compliant M5 class road).
- Curfew dimming to at least 10% with adaptive technology or to at least 50% with non-adaptive technology.
- Mean time of luminaire failure must be at least 100.000 hours or 25 years.
- Luminaire efficacy must be: >50lm/W for lighting less than 1900K, >95lm/W for lighting of 1900-2200K or >100lm/W for lighting of 2200-2700K CCT (exemptions may apply when mechanical shielding is added to prevent unwanted lighting or when the pole distance:pole height ratio exceeds 6:1).
- Utilisation factor of at least 70% (i.e. 0.70) must be achieved except in cases of narrow cycle or pedestrian paths, where it can be at least 40%.
- Illumination on residential windows cannot exceed 0.01 to 0.50 lx depending on how close the window is to the illuminated public place.
- Discomfort and disability from intense, blue-rich LED lighting can decrease visual acuity and safety, resulting in concerns and creating a road hazard.
- It is estimated that white LED lamps have five times greater impact on circadian sleep rhythms than conventional street lamps. Recent large surveys found that brighter residential nighttime lighting is associated with reduced sleep times, dissatisfaction with sleep quality, excessive sleepiness, impaired daytime functioning and obesity.
- Excessive outdoor lighting disrupts many species that need a dark environment. For instance, poorly designed LED lighting disorients some bird, insect, turtle and fish species.
- Recognizing the detrimental effects of poorly-designed, high-intensity LED lighting, the AMA encourages communities to minimize and control blue-rich environmental lighting by using the lowest emission of blue light possible to reduce glare. The AMA recommends an intensity threshold for optimal LED lighting that minimizes blue-rich light. The AMA also recommends all LED lighting should be properly shielded to minimize glare and detrimental human health and environmental effects, and consideration should be given to utilize the ability of LED lighting to be dimmed for off-peak time periods.
- Cijeli izvještaj pročitajte ovdje.
- In order to make dark adaption faster and improve night time driver’s driving safety and efficiency, low color temperature lights are generally used for illumination. Last, but not the least, fog penetration ability is an important factor because street lights are used to illuminate the road under foggy or hazy weather. Currently, the fog penetration ability of most white LEDs is not ideal. Low fog penetration ability also leads to higher urban skyglow pollution from white LEDs because of molecular (Rayleigh) and aerosol (Mie) scattering. Such scattering not only reduces the illumination of the ground and make ground objects difficult to see (and thus make the roads even less safe).
- The test on fog penetration shows as fog or haze level increases, road illuminance decreases, which means light’s transmission through fog or haze decreases. Higher CCT is correlated to lower transmission in fog or haze.
Utjecaj na zdravlje ljudi
- Several studies over the last decade have suggested that the modern practice of keeping our bodies exposed to artificial light at night, or LAN, increases cancer risk, especially for cancers (such as breast and prostate cancers) that require hormones to grow. Women who work night shifts have shown higher rates of breast cancer,1 whereas blind women, who are not likely to be exposed to or perceive LAN, have shown decreased risks.
- The study showed that higher population-weighted country-level LAN levels were associated with higher incidence of breast cancer.4 A sensitivity test indicated a 30–50% increased risk of breast cancer in countries with the highest versus lowest LAN levels.
SAVJETI ZA SMANJENJE RIZIKA OD KARCINOMA:
- Consider extending the dark period at night to 9 or 10 hours. Install room-darkening shades in bedrooms.
- Avoid even brief light exposures. Turn off the lights, television, and computer in the bedroom when you are sleeping. Avoid watching television or working on the computer right before you shut your eyes.
- If you get up in the night, forgo the usual bathroom lights for a dim red nightlight. Red light suppresses melatonin production less than other wavelengths.
- Do not take melatonin tablets unless directed by a physician. The spike in circulating melatonin may actually worsen, not alleviate, circadian disruption.
- Disruption of circadian rhythms by night shift work or disturbed sleep-wake cycles may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer and other diseases. Moreover, light exposure at night (LEN) suppresses the nocturnal production of melatonin that inhibits breast cancer growth.
Health Effects of Artificial Light (19. 3. 2012.) – izvještaj Europske komisije
- Circadian disruptions, including decrease of melatonin levels, have been suggested to play an important role in development of chronic diseases and conditions such as cancer (breast, prostate, endometrial, ovary, colo-rectal, skin and melanomas, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas), cardiovascular diseases, reproduction, endometriosis, gastrointestinal and digestive problems, diabetes, obesity, depression, sleep deprivation, and cognitive impairment
- So far, the most comprehensive evidence of an association between circadian disruption and disease is found for breast cancer in night-shift workers.
- Using a protocol that enhances data precision, we have found the threshold for human melatonin suppression to be ~10 log photons cm–2 s–1 at 460 nm. This finding has far-reaching implications since there is mounting evidence that nocturnal activation of the circadian system can be harmful.
- People who carry the genetic risk of bipolar disorder may be at greater risk of full-blown bipolar disorder because of the impact of noise and light pollution on sleep patterns and circadian biorhythms.
- The effect of artificial light on mental health is better known. Artificial light modifies daily rhythms by allowing the occurrence, during hours of natural darkness (both indoors and outdoors), of activities normally performed during daylight hours, such as food intake or social meetings. This has a profound impact on the immune-endocrine circadian (24h) timing mechanisms and the other endogenous rhythms that have evolved to ensure that human behavior is more efficient when synchronized with variations in light (for circadian ones) and with other environmental circumstances such as weather and seasons.
- We have devolved a mouse model for characterizing the relation between exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) and both global DNA methylation (GDM) and breast cancer. Generally, the model describes a close association between ALAN and cancer responses. Cancer responses are eminent at all light spectra, with the prevalent manifestation at the shorter end of the visible spectrum.
- Increasing exposure to artificial light-at-night (ALAN) may influence body mass, by suppression of melatonin production and disruption of daily rhythms, resulting in physiological or behavioral changes in the human body, and may thus become a driving force behind worldwide overweight and obesity pandemic.
- ALAN emerged as a statistically significant and positive predictor of overweight and obesity (t>1.97; P<0.05), helping to explain, together with other factors, about 70% of the observed variation of overweight and obesity prevalence rates among females and males in more than 80 countries worldwide.
- This study is the first population-level study that confirms the results of laboratory research and cohort studies in which ALAN was found to be a contributing factor to excessive body mass in humans.
Svjetlosno onečišćenje i sigurnost
- Recommendations for the amount of light do not appear to be well-founded in robust empirical evidence, or at least do not tend to reveal the nature of any evidence. This suggests a need to reconsider recommended light levels, a need reinforced by recent developments in the science and technology of lighting and of lighting research.
- The introduction of LEDs has thus led to new requirements for new recommendations associated with spectrum, spatial distribution (e.g. the surround ratio and specific sidewalk requirements) and dynamic control. The small physical size of LEDs renders new applications possible. For example, using self-luminous road studs as lane markers may provide a better solution than overhead road lighting in some situations. This is likely to reduce sky glow and energy consumption.
- Changes in technology have moved towards lamps of greater efficacy and light levels may have increased, because there was an ability to do so, not because there was evidence of a benefit to be gained from higher light levels.
- While there are strong lobbies to reduce the impacts of these externalities, by using lower light levels, restricted spectral tuning or optical control, recommendations still need to meet the intended benefits for road users, e.g. a pedestrian’s ability to detect a trip hazard or a driver’s ability to detect a pedestrian on the carriageway. For this, we need robust evidence of how such benefits are affected by changes in lighting and this is not evident in existing standards.
- Inadequate lighting is not the only cause of road accidents. It was concluded by CIE that ‘the installation of lighting cannot be expected to result in a reduction in accidents if there is a major non-vision problem at any particular site’.
- Gibbons et al.examined 83 000 crashes in the period 2007 to 2012 over 2000 miles of road in the USA, with the lighting being measured across the whole of these roads. This work used the night to day crash rate ratio (number of crashes per million vehicle miles during the night/number of crashes per million vehicle miles during the day) to determine the relationship between light level and safety. The results suggest that increased illuminance leads to a reduction in the night/day crash ratio, this relationship changing for different types of road, but that at some point, an illuminance is reached beyond which further increase in illuminance is unlikely to bring further benefit in terms of safety: This point identifies the optimum illuminance. For freeways, this optimum was 5.0 lux. This is lower than illuminances determined (assuming road reflectance class R2 with q0 = 0.07) from the recommendations of IESNA (9 lux) and CIE (21 lux for class M2). That the optimum light level from Gibbons et al. for a freeway is significantly less than current recommendations indicates an opportunity to reduce light levels on this class of road by around 50% without increasing the night/day crash ratio.
- The results confirmed that both variables play a major role in nighttime road fatalities and revealed new evidence that they contribute differentially to two classes of fatal collisions: Degraded visibility in low illumination is associated primarily with collisions involving pedestrians and pedalcyclists, whereas drivers’ consumption of alcohol plays a larger role in other fatal collisions.
- There was no evidence that any street lighting adaptation strategy was associated with a change in collisions at night. There was significant statistical heterogeneity in the effects on crime estimated at police force level. Overall, there was no evidence for an association between the aggregate count of crime and switch off
- Conclusions: This study found little evidence of harmful effects of switch off, part-night lighting, dimming, or changes to white light/LEDs on road collisions or crime in England and Wales.
- Adding a small amount of road lighting (0.1 cd/m2) improved detection compared with no road lighting: increasing the luminance to 1.0 cd/m2 improved detection further still but an additional increase to 2.0 cd/m2 did not suggest further benefit. There was no difference in detection performance between S/P ratios of 0.65 and 1.40, both being examined at a luminance of 1.0 cd/m2. These results suggest that, in the current context, visual performance reached a plateau at 1.0 cd/m2.
- News media have uncritically perpetuated the myth of increased lighting for crime prevention. Journalists and others concerned need to check the facts more carefully. An extensive pro-lighting campaign started in the 1990s appears to have swayed many UK authorities to install brighter outdoor lighting as a supposed crime reduction measure. The UK Crime and Disorder Act 1998 may have accelerated this process. In the year ending April 2002, street crime in the UK was reported as having increased by 28 %, quite inconsistent with the claimed crime-prevention effect of lighting.
- Although the presence of light tends to allay the fear of crime at night, the balance of evidence from relatively short-term field studies is that increased lighting is ineffective for preventing or deterring actual crime. In this second part, available evidence indicates that darkness inhibits crime, and that crime is more encouraged than deterred by outdoor lighting.
The new hypothesis suggests that present high rates of crime are partly a result of excessively high outdoor ambient light levels at night. This was tested by examining the crime rate in cities of Australia, Canada, England and the USA.
The hypothesis also indicates that outdoor crime should be most prevalent in brightly lit rather than dim locations. This was confirmed by illuminance measures at the locations of drugs crime arrests in central Melbourne and by the increased crime at Melbourne metropolitan rail stations since large increases in lighting were introduced.
Utjecaj na ptice
- In birds, the best evidence suggests an orientation strategy based on identifying the starry sky’s centre of rotation. This behaviour persisted with the removal of successive constellations, and P. cyanea was only disoriented when all of the constellations within 35° of Polaris were blocked from view. Various attempts to demonstrate stellar orientation in other migratory bird species [16–19] indicate that several other night-migrating species also use the centre of celestial rotation as their stellar orientation reference.
- For S. satyrus it is the Milky Way, as opposed to any individual star or asterism, that appears to act as the primary stellar orientation cue. When transferred to a planetarium displaying only the streak of the Milky Way, beetles rolled their dung balls to the edge of a circular arena in a similar time to that needed when viewing the real starry sky, or indeed when all stars were displayed in the planetarium.
- In an early study of heading fidelity in night-dispersive behaviour, tethered yellow underwing moths (Noctua pronuba) were found to orient to both the moon and the stars.
- Lights can confuse birds, causing them to fly into one another or a structure. They can also prompt the birds to fly in circles, burning through precious energy reserves stored up for the sometimes long migratory journey.
- Over all, scientists estimate that anywhere from 365 million to nearly a billion birds are killed in such accidents each year in the United States.
- We found that in four species dawn and dusk singing developed earlier in the year at sites exposed to light pollution.
- Our results support the hypothesis that artificial night lighting alters natural seasonal rhythms, independently of other effects of urbanization.
- Here we show that artificial light at night disrupts nocturnal pollination networks and has negative consequences for plant reproductive success. In artificially illuminated plant–pollinator communities, nocturnal visits to plants were reduced by 62% compared to dark areas. Notably, this resulted in an overall 13% reduction in fruit set of a focal plant even though the plant also received numerous visits by diurnal pollinators.
- We have shown here for the first time that a brief exposure of only two nights to ALAN affects oxalate levels in developing wild animals.
- The increasing illumination of the night is a serious threat as it disrupts circadian rhythms, physiology and behaviour. Early-life exposure could have long-lasting effects throughout adulthood, reducing survival and reproduction.
- We measured the effect of two outdoor disco events on overnight weight gain in 26 chicks of Scopoli’s shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea) from a breeding colony on Linosa Island. Chicks situated closer to the disturbance gained significantly less weight compared to conspecifics from nests further away.
- Our results suggest that light and sound disturbances can have a negative effect on parental care in C. diomedea but moonlight might moderate the bird’s perception and thus the magnitude of the disturbance.
Utjecaj na kukce
- Widespread nocturnal artificial illumination radically disrupts the habitats of night‐active species. Nocturnal and crepuscular insects are abundant and important components of these ecosystems. Thus, the impact of ALAN on insect fitness and abundance can provide a useful metric of overall ecosystem disturbance.
- The potential effects of ALAN on insects can be categorized as temporal disorientation, spatial disorientation, attraction, desensitization, and recognition. The severity of impact will depend on the degree of overlap between the spectral sensitivity of the insect in question and spectral emission (and intensity) of the particular ALAN source (Gaston et al., 2015). Recently, many urban areas have begun to phase out monochromatic long‐wavelength LPS lamps in favor of broad‐spectrum white LED lighting. This spectral shift represents an ecological experiment on a global scale, with potentially devastating results.
- Laboratory and field studies reviewed here demonstrate that ambient light can inhibit the courtship flashing of several firefly species.
- In moths, ALAN disrupts pheromone production in female Cabbage Moth (Mamestra brassicae)2, inhibits feeding in adult moths3 and reduces mating in Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata)4.
- Among the ground vegetation, where pollination of wild flowers would take place, moths abundance was 50% lower and species richness 25% lower on lit versus unlit sections. The abundance of moths flying overhead was 70% greater at lit sites than dark ones6. A Swiss study has since shown a significant decrease in the number and species richness of nocturnal insect visitors to flowers in Alpine meadows when exposed to ALAN7.
Utjecaj na ribe
- The present study is the first proof of the development of an ovarian tumour with the effect of light in zebrafish (Danio rerio), an excellent model for circadian-related studies. This study evidenced of an ovarian tumour induced by ALAN in zebrafish.
- Utjecaj umjetne rasvjete na ribe (gupije)
- We have shown that ALAN reduced daytime emergence time and increased the time spent in the open in guppies. Moreover, whereas control fish increased their emergence time over repeated exposures; fish from the light treatments did not adjust their emergence time over repeated exposure.
- Our results demonstrate that ALAN, next to affecting nocturnal behaviours, can also affect daytime behavioural processes, associated with risk-taking.
Utjecaj na vodozemce
- Post-metamorphic toad growth was reduced by 15% in the ALAN treatment. Juvenile-stage ALAN also affected toad activity: in natural light, toads retreated into leaf litter at night whereas ALAN toads did not change behaviour.
- We detected a particularly troubling finding: reduced juvenile toad growth in response to ALAN. This reduced growth may suggest toads exposed to ALAN may incur reduced fitness later in life, especially if additional stressors (e.g. predators, competitors, desiccation risk) are present and alter the effect of ALAN.
Estetika LED rasvjete
- To some residents, the new lights make it feel as though a construction or film crew is working outside all night. Others liken the lights to a prison yard, or joke about alien abductions.“The old lights made everybody look bad,” said Christopher Stoddard, an architect, who lives at the corner of Fuller Place. “But these are so cold and blue, it’s like ‘Night of the Living Dead’ out there.”
- “LED lights for a historic piazza like this are just not right aesthetically. The light they give off is too white, too harsh.”
- “Rome’s historic centre now resembles a morgue,” said Nathalie Naim, a local politician who is leading opposition to the new lights. “They have stripped away the welcoming atmosphere of Rome’s most historic areas.”
- “If you are having trouble understanding the difference that has resulted, I can only compare it to a candle-lit dinner versus the frozen food aisle of your local grocery store.”
- “We’re calling on the council to install less powerful LED lights, which would give off a softer glow”
- The lighting of the Church of the Three Kings in Logatec, Slovenia was replaced in 2014. The power of the installation was reduced 96% from 1.6 kW to 58 W, and spill light from the site was effectively eliminated. As a result, the church is no longer visible in nighttime satellite images of the area, indicating a reduction of waste light from the site of at least a factor of 30. This article discusses the concept of sustainability with regards to cultural heritage lighting, within the context of this example.
- Shops and offices throughout France will be forced to turn off their lights overnight in a bid to fight light pollution.
- The move, announced on Wednesday, is expected to save 250,000 tonnes of CO2 – enough energy to power 750,000 French households for a year.